Kinds of Arrhythmia detection by Spandan Portable EKG device

Nitin Chandola

Posted on - July 16, 2019

1. Sinus Tachycardia:Tachycardia refers to a fast resting heart rate, usually over 100 beats per minute. Tachycardia can be dangerous, depending on its underlying cause and on how hard the heart has to work. Some people with tachycardia may have no symptoms or complications. However, tachycardia significantly increases the risk ofstroke, sudden cardiac arrest, and death.

Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia (MAT)

References:
www.litfl.com/..
www.thecardiologyadvisor.com/..

2. Ventricular Fibrillation: Ventricular fibrillation is a heart rhythm problem that occurs when the heart beats with rapid, erratic electrical impulses. This causes pumping chambers in your heart (the ventricles) to quiver uselessly, instead of pumping blood. Sometimes triggered by a heart attack, ventricular fibrillation causes your blood pressure to plummet, cutting off blood supply to your vital organs. Ventricular fibrillation, an emergency that requires immediate medical attention, causes the person to collapse within seconds. It is the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Emergency treatment includes cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and shocks to the heart with a device called an automated external defibrillator (AED). Treatments to prevent sudden cardiac death for those at risk of ventricular fibrillation include medications and implantable devices that can restore a normal heart rhythm.

References:
www.bhf.org.uk/..
www.sciencedirect.com/..

3. Ventricular Tachycardia: Ventricular tachycardia refers to a wide QRS complex heart rhythm — that is, a QRS duration beyond 120 milliseconds — originating in the ventricles at a rate of greater than 100 beats per minute. This can be hemodynamically unstable, causing severe hypotension, and can thus be life-threatening. Ventricular fibrillation, asystole and sudden cardiac death can occur soon after ventricular tachycardia if action is not taken immediately.

References:
www.healthline.com/..
www.hopkinsmedicine.org/..

4. Normal Sinus Rhythm: It is the normal rhythm of Heart.

Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR)

5. Sinus Arrhythmia:A sinus arrhythmia is an irregular heartbeat that’s either too fast or too slow. One type of sinus arrhythmia, called respiratory sinus arrhythmia, is when the heartbeat changes pace when you inhale and exhale. In other words, your heartbeat cycles with your breath. When you breathe in, your heart rate increases. When you exhale, it falls. This condition is benign. It’s a naturally occurring heartbeat variation, and it doesn’t mean you have a serious heart condition. In fact, this condition is common in young, healthy adults and children. A respiratory sinusarrhythmiaoccur in older individuals, but in these cases, it’s often associated with heart disease or another heart condition. In a young and otherwise healthy person, these conditions are not serious or problematic. Some people with a slow or fast heartbeat might experience symptoms like light headedness or shortness of breath, but others may never experience symptoms at all.

Sinus Arrhythmia

References:
www.healthline.com/..

6. Junctional Tachycardia:Junctional tachycardia is an acceleration of the heart rate caused by neither the atria nor the ventricles of the heart, but by a node responsible for the spread of electrical impulses in the heart, called the atrioventricular node. This condition manifests as an accelerated heart rate, with sudden on-set palpitations, and particularly affects children. This is a one-off condition which resolves by itself.

Junctional Tachycardia

References:
www.healio.com/..
www.emtresource.com/..

7. Atrial Rhythm:Atrial rhythms originate in the atria rather than in the SA node. The P wave will be positive, but its shape can be different than a normal sinus rhythm because the electrical impulse follows a different path to the AV (atrioventricular) node.

Reference:
www.ekg.academy/..

8. Atrial Flutter:AFLis a heart rhythm disorder that is similar to the more common. InAFib, the heart beats fast and in no regular pattern or rhythm. WithAFL, the heart beats abnormally fast, but in a regular pattern. The fast, but regular pattern ofAFLis what makes it special.AFLa very distinct "sawtooth" pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG), a test used to diagnose abnormal heart rhythms.

References:
www.hrsonline.org/..
www.msdmanuals.com/..

9. Atrial Fibrillation: Atrialfibrillationbe a primary electrical abnormality of the heart, be associated with underlying heart problems including problems with heart valves, coronary arteries, heart muscle, congestiveheartfailurebe related to problems with the thyroid gland or other disorders of metabolism.

Atrial Fibrillation


Those who do have atrial fibrillation symptoms may experience signs and symptoms such as:
  • Palpitations, which are sensations of a racing, uncomfortable, irregular heartbeat or a flip-flopping in your chest
  • Weakness
  • Reduced ability to exercise
  • Fatigue
  • Lightheadedness
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
References:
www.msdmanuals.com/..
www.bhf.org.uk/..

10. Atrial Tachycardia:Atrial tachycardia is the least common type of supraventricular tachycardia. It's generally seen in children with underlying heart disorders such as congenital heart disease, particularly those who've had heart surgery. Atrial tachycardia may also be triggered by factors such as an infection or drug or alcohol use. For some people, atrial tachycardia increases during pregnancy or exercise. Atrial tachycardia episodes typically begin slowly, gradually increasing to more than 100 beats per minute before returning to a normal heart rate of around 60 to 80 beats per minute. In some cases, these episodes occur more abruptly or occur continuously.

Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia (MAT)


Atrial tachycardia may cause no symptoms at all or may cause any of the following:
  • Palpitations (a fluttering in the chest)
  • Fainting
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Heart failure
Reference:
www.hopkinsmedicine.org/..

11. Slow Atrial Fibrillation:Atrial fibrillation is an arrhythmia where the upper chambers are just quivering with no organized electrical activity and no active contraction. The impulses then pass through the AV node which regulates which are passed down to the ventricles. The average number per minute that “get through” determine the heart rate which is also the ventricular response. Since normal heart rate is 60-100, when the number that are passed through is lower than 60, the ventricular response would be considered slow. If slow enough, a pacemaker may need to be considered but there are several other factors in this decision.

Atrial Fibrillation (AF)


Those who do have atrial fibrillation symptoms may experience signs and symptoms such as:
  • Palpitations, which are sensations of a racing, uncomfortable, irregular heartbeat or a flip-flopping in your chest
  • Weakness
  • Reduced ability to exercise
  • Lightheadedness
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
References:
www.msdmanuals.com/..
www.bhf.org.uk/..

12. Junctional Rhythm: Junctional rhythms can be completely asymptomatic or accompanied by any of the following:

    Palpitations
  • Fatigue
  • Dyspnea
  • Lightheadedness
  • Dizziness
  • Syncope

Junction Rhythm


Referecnces
www.healio.com/..
www.emtresource.com/..

13. Branch Bundle Block:Bundle branch block is a condition in which there's a delay or blockage along the pathway that electrical impulses travel to make your heart beat. It sometimes makes it harder for your heart to pump blood efficiently through your body. The delay or blockage can occur on the pathway that sends electrical impulses either to the left or the right side of the bottom chambers (ventricles) of your heart. Bundle branch block might not need treatment. When it does, treatment involves managing the health condition, such as heart disease, that caused bundle branch block.

Signs and symptoms in people who have them might include:

  • Fainting (syncope)
  • Feeling as if you're going to faint (presyncope)

References:
www.mayoclinic.org/..
www.texasheart.org/..

14. A-V Block :Atrioventricular block (AV block), is due to abnormally slowed electrical conduction of the sinus impulse through thenode. The extreme variant of this can manifest asAV block, with no sinus impulses able to traverse a diseasednode, and complete disconnection between the top (atria) and bottom (ventricular) chambers.

Third Degree AV Block


Signs and symptoms of second- and third-degree heart block include:
  • Fainting
  • Dizziness or light-headedness
  • Fatigue (tiredness)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain

References:
www.msdmanuals.com/..
www.nhlbi.nih.gov/..

15. Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia:Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PMVT) is defined as a ventricular rhythm faster than 100 beats/min characterized by clearly defined QRS complexes with frequent and rapid changes in morphology, axis, or both.

Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (PVT)


Other symptoms include the following:
  • Lightheadedness,
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pressure
  • Syncope (passing out)
Reference:
www.medicinenet.com/..

Besides these Arrhythmias, SpandanPoratble ECG Device and Application is composed of ingenious algorithms to detect combination of the multiple Arrhythmias like -
16. Sinus Tachycardia or Atrial Tachycardia,
17. Regular Rhythm with variable AV-Block,
18. Atrial fibrillation + Branch Bundle Block,
19. Atrial Tachycardia + Branch Bundle Block,
20. Regular Rhythm with variable AV-Block, Ventricular Tachycardia or Ventricular Flutter or Sinus Tachycardia, Sinus Tachycardia or Atrial Tachycardia + Branch Bundle Block,
21. Junctional Rhythm + Branch Bundle Block + Ventricular Rhythm.