Kinds of heart dysfunctions detection by Spandan portable ECG Device.


Posted on - July 16, 2019

1. AVNRT (Atrioventricular Nodal Re-entrant Tachycardia).
Rapid beating of the heart can cause the sensation of palpitations, which are often described as fluttering, pounding, and beating sensations in the chest. Sometimes these palpitations are rapid enough to affect other parts of the body, and people with palpitations may also describe feelings of light-headedness, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Occasionally, these palpitations are rapid enough to cause people to pass out (syncope), though this is rare. Rapid palpitations may come from the heart’s upper chambers, the atria, and in most cases, are not generally considered life threatening (although rare exceptions do exist). Alternatively, palpitations may come from the heart’s lower chambers, the ventricles, which in some cases may be life-threatening. Also, the natural electrical “bridge” between the atria and ventricles, the atrio-ventricular (AV) node, can be a common site of arrhythmias causing palpitations. The best way to start the diagnosis of the cause of palpitations is to have an electrocardiogram (ECG) read by a physician experienced in heart rhythm disorders.



The symptoms of AVNRT are similar to other SVT, with palpitation, lightheadedness, dizziness, shortness of breath, reduced exercise capacity, weakness, fatigue, chest discomfort, and sweating episodes


2. AVRT (Atrioventricular Re-entrant Tachycardia).
Atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT), or atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia, is a type of abnormal fast heart rhythm and is classified as a type of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). AVRT is most commonly associated with Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, in which an accessory pathway allows electrical signals from the heart's ventricles to enter the atria and cause earlier than normal contraction, which leads to repeated stimulation of the atrioventricular node.
Signs and symptoms of AVRT (Atrioventricular Re-entrant Tachycardia) may include:

  • A fluttering in your chest
  • Rapid heartbeat (palpitations)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Lightheadedness or dizziness
  • Sweating
  • A pounding sensation in the neck
  • Fainting (syncope) or near faintin
  • References:

    3. AT+BBB (Atrial Tachycardia Branch Bundle Block) Or Ab (Aberration)
    When the electrical impulse is delayed in reaching its respective ventricle, the delay shows up as a distinctive pattern on the ECG called a bundle branch block. The chief effect of a bundle branch block is that it disrupts the simultaneous contraction of the two ventricles. The contraction of one ventricle (the one that has a "blocked" bundle branch) occurs slightly after the contraction of the other, rather than at the same time.Aberration

    4. Hyperkalaemia
    Hyperkalemia is the medical term that describes a potassium level in your blood that's higher than normal. Potassium is a chemical that is critical to the function of nerve and muscle cells, including those in your heart.

    5. Accessory Pathway.

    6. Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (PVT)
    SVT in general is any tachyarrhythmia that requires atrial and/or atrioventricular (AV) nodal tissue for its initiation and maintenance. It is usually a narrow-complex tachycardia that has a regular, rapid rhythm; exceptions include atrial fibrillation (AF) and multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT). Aberrant conduction during SVT results in a wide-complex tachycardia.

    Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia

    7. Irregular/Regular QRS
    we see a small dip followed by a large spike and another dip. This series is usually considered together, and it's called the QRS wave.
    "Arrhythmia" means your heartbeat is irregular. It doesn't necessarily mean your heart is beating too fast or too slow. It just means it's out of its normal rhythm.
    It may feel like your heart skipped a beat, added a beat, is "fluttering," or is beating too fast (which doctors call tachycardia) or too slow (called bradycardia). Or, you might not notice anything, since some arrhythmias are "silent."

    8. P Wave presence/Absence.
    The first wave is called the P wave. You can see from this picture that it's a relatively small wave. It represents the depolarization of the atria. What does that mean? Well, we remember that depolarization is defined as the change in the cell's membrane potential to a more positive state. This change generates the electrical impulse that starts the heart's contraction. Therefore, we can associate the P wave of an ECG with the contraction of the atria.

    Accelerated Junction Rhythm

    9. Wide/ Narrow QRS.
    A “wide QRS complex” refers to a QRS complex duration ≥120 ms. Widening of the QRS complex is related to slower spread of ventricular depolarization, either due to disease of the His-Purkinje network and/or reliance on slower, muscle-to-muscle spread of depolarization.
    This can be seen during:

  • Propagation of a supraventricular impulse (atrial premature depolarizations [APDs] or supraventricular tachycardia [SVT]) with block (preexisting or rate-related) in one or more parts of the His-Purkinje network;
  • Depolarization’s originating in the ventricles themselves (ventricular premature beats [VPDs] or ventricular tachycardia [VT]);
  • Slowed propagation of a supraventricular impulse because of intra-myocardial scar/fibrosis/hypertrophy; or
  • Conduction of a supraventricular impulse from atrium to ventricle over an accessory pathway (bypass tract) – so called “pre-excited” tachycardia.

  • 10. QRS presence/Absence.
    Duration less than or equal to 0.12 seconds, amplitude greater than 0.5 mV in at least one standard lead, and greater than 1.0 mV in at least one precordial lead. Upper limit of normal amplitude is 2.5 - 3.0 mV.