ST segment Elevation

Sunfox Technologies

Posted on - March 10, 2021

St Segment elevation is identified by the flat section on the ECG which shows the interval between the irregular heartbeats. The main reason behind this is the blockage in one of the chambers of the heart. It is a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment. It further can be classified as

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)

ST-Segment Myocardial Infraction is a type of heart attack that occurs when a part of the heart muscle is damaged or died due to the blockage of the blood in that area. The blockage arises due to the formation of plaque because of fat and cholesterol.

Unstable angina

The clots that are formed keep on changing, they dissolve and then form again during hours or days without causing any damage. Although one may experience angina meaning that the person may suffer from chest pain, shoulder pain on and on again. This problem is called unstable angina.

Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)

NSTEMI happens when the blockage doesn’t completely stop the blood from flowing. Some of the cells may die but other parts of the muscles survive. This can also be called a partial heart attack.


It will typically result in intense pain or pressure in or around the chest, often radiating to the neck, jaw, shoulder, or arm. Profuse sweating, breathlessness, and a profound sense of impending doom are also common. At times it may be difficult to identify the signs as they may seem like normal symptoms for other diseases-

  • Pain around the shoulder blades, arm, chest, jaw, left arm, or upper abdomen
  • A painful sensation described as having a "clenched fist in the chest"
  • Discomfort or tightness in the neck or arm
  • Indigestion or heartburn
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fatigue or sudden exhaustion
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Increased or irregular heart rate
  • Clammy skin
  • As a general rule of thumb, anyone at significant risk of a heart attack should pay close attention to any unusual symptom arising from above the waist.


    Treatment must be started the moment STEMI is diagnosed. In addition to administering drugs to stabilize the heart muscle (including morphine and, statin medications), efforts will be made to immediately reopen the blocked artery. This requires speed. Unless the artery is opened within three hours of the blockage, at least some permanent damage can be expected. Generally speaking, much of the damage can be minimized if the artery is unblocked within the first six hours of an attack. Up until 12 hours, some damage may be averted. After that, the longer it takes to unblock the artery, the more damage there will be.